Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Flora ~ Goddess of Flowers

Origins: Roman
Language: Latin
Translation: Means flower
Feast Days: April 28th, May 23rd
Goddess of: Flowers
Goddess Type: Earth Goddess
Also Known As: Flora Rustica, "Flora the Countrywoman" or "Flora of the Countryside", and Flora Mater, or "Flora the Mother", in respect to Her ancient origins. Among the Oscans She was known as Flusia.
Symbols/Offering: flowers,


Flora is the Roman Goddess of flowering plants, especially those that bear fruit. Spring, of course, is Her season, and She has elements of a Love-Goddess, with its attendant attributes of fertility, sex, and blossoming. She is quite ancient; the Sabines are said to have named a month for Her (which corresponds to our and the Roman April).
She was originally the Goddess specifically of the flowering crops, such as the grain or fruit-trees, and Her function was to make the grain, vegetables and trees bloom so that autumn's harvest would be good. She was invoked to avert rust, a nasty fungal disease of plants that causes orange growths the exact color of rusting iron, and which was (is) an especial problem affecting wheat.
Hers is the beginning of the process that finds its completion with Pomona, the Goddess of Fruit and the Harvest; and like Pomona, Flora had Her own flamen, one of a small number of priests each in service to a specific Deity.
The flamens were said to have been instituted by Numa, the legendary second King of Rome who succeeded Romulus; and whether Numa really existed or not, the flamens were undoubtedly of ancient origin, as were the Deities they served.

In later times Flora became the Goddess of all flowering plants, including the ornamental varieties.
In one story, Flora was said to have provided Juno with a magic flower that would allow Her to conceive with no help from a man; from this virgin-birth Mars was born. A late tale calls Flora a courtesan and gives Her a story similar to Acca Larentia: Flora was said to have made a fortune as a courtesan, which She bequeathed to Rome upon Her death, and for which She was honored with the festival of the Floralia. As Flora was originally a Sabine Goddess, and as the Sabines were a neighboring tribe whom the Romans conquered and assimilated into Rome, perhaps this is an acknowledgement of the land so acquired, put into legendary terms.

Flora had two temples in Rome, one near the Circus Maximus, the great "stadium" of Rome where chariot races were held, and another on the slopes of the Quirinal Hill. The temple on the Quirinal was most likely built on the site of an earlier altar to Her said to have been dedicated by Titus Tatius, King of the Sabines, who ruled alongside Romulus for a time in the very early (hence legendary) days of Rome. Her other temple was built quite near to the Circus Maximus, though its exact site has not been found, and was associated with a neighboring temple dedicated to the triad of Ceres (the Grain Goddess) and Liber and Libera (God and Goddess of the Vine). These Deities and Flora were all concerned with the fertility and health of the crops. Flora's temple by the Circus was dedicated on the 28th of April in 241 (or 248) BCE in response to a great drought at the command of the Sybilline books, and this day became the starting date of Her great festival, the Floralia. In Imperial times (1st century CE) this temple was rededicated (I assume after some restorations were made) on the 13th of August, and this date was given to a second festival of Flora, coinciding with the ripening of the grain, whose flowers She had set forth.

The Floralia of April was originally a moveable feast to coincide with the blossoming of the plants, later becoming fixed with the dedication of Her temple on the 28th (or 27th, before the calendar was reformed--I mention this because holidays were almost always held on odd-numbered days as it was considered unlucky to start a festival on an even-numbered day), though ludi or "games"--horse-races or athletic contests--were not held every year. By the Empire the festival had grown (or should I say, blossomed) to seven days, and included chariot-races and theatrical performances, some of which were notoriously bawdy. It was given over to merriment and celebrations of an amorous nature, much like that northern flower-and-sex festival Beltaine whose date neatly coincides. Prostitutes considered it their own special time, and the Floralia gained a reputation as being more licentious and abandoned than the Saturnalia of December, whose name is legendary even now.

At the chariot-races and circus games of the Floralia it was traditional to let goats and hares loose, and lupines, bean-flowers and vetch (all of which have similarly-shaped blossoms and are a sort of showier version of wheat in bloom) were scattered, symbolic of fertility. Brightly colored clothes were a must, as were wreaths of flowers, especially roses; and the celebrations drew great crowds. Of the two nationalized chariot-teams who shared a deep rivalry, the Greens and the Blues, the Greens (of course) were Hers, and She had been invoked at chariot-races from ancient times. The last day of the festival, May 3rd, was called Florae; it may be a special name for the closing day of the Floralia, or it may refer to a seperate ceremony conducted in Her temple on the Quirinal.

Flora was depicted by the Romans wearing light spring clothing, holding small bouquets of flowers, sometimes crowned with blossoms. Honey, made from flowers, is one of Her gifts, and Her name is said to be one of the secret (holy) names of Rome. She is sometimes called the handmaiden of Ceres. Ovid identifies Her with the Greek flower-nymph Chloris, whose name means "yellow or pale green", the color of Spring. The word flora is still used as a general name for the plants of a region.

Ereshkigal ~ Goddess of Darkness, Death, & Gloom

Origins: Mesopotamian
Language: Sumerian
Translation: Means "lady under the great earth"
Feast Days: Unknown
Goddess of: Darkness, Death, & Gloom
Goddess Type: Earth Goddess
Also Known As: Irkalla, Nungal
Ereshkigal was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead or underworld. Sometimes her name is given as Irkalla, similar to the way the name Hades was used in Greek mythology for both the underworld and its ruler.

Ereshkigal was the only one who could pass judgment and give laws in her kingdom. The main temple dedicated to her was located in Kutha.

The goddess Ishtar refers to Ereshkigal as her older sister in the Sumerian hymn "The Descent of Inanna" (which was also in later Babylonian myth, also called "The Descent of Ishtar"). Inanna/Ishtar's trip and return to the underworld is the most familiar of the myths concerning Ereshkigal.

She is known chiefly through two myths, believed to symbolize the changing of the seasons, but perhaps also intended to illustrate certain doctrines developed dating back to the Mesopotamia period. Ereshkigal is therefore the sister of Ishtar and from one point of view her counterpart, the symbol of nature during the non-productive season of the year. As the doctrine of two kingdoms, one of this world and one of the world of the dead, becomes crystallized, the dominions of the two sisters are sharply differentiated from one another.

One of these myths is the famous story of Ishtar's descent to Irkalla or Aralu, as the netherworld was called, and her reception by her sister who presides over it; Ereshkigal traps her sister in her dark kingdom and Inanna/Ishtar is only able to leave it by sacrificing her husband Dumuzi in exchange for herself. The other myth is the story of Nergal, the plague god, whose offence against Ereshkigal, his banishment to the kingdom controlled by the goddess and the reconciliation between Nergal and Ereshkigal through the latter's offer to have Nergal share the honors of the rule over Irkalla. In later tradition, Nergal is said to have been the victor, taking her as wife and ruling the land himself.

It is theorized that the story of Ishtar's descent is told to illustrate the possibility of an escape from Irkalla, while the other myth is intended to reconcile the existence of two rulers of Irkalla: a goddess and a god. The addition of Nergal represents the harmonizing tendency to unite with Ereshkigal as the queen of the netherworld to the god who, in his character as god of war and of pestilence, conveys the living to Irkalla and thus becomes the one who presides over the dead.

One version of the story depicts the triumph of Nergal in the following way. Once, the gods invited Ereshkigal (sometimes referred to as Allat) to a party that they had organised in Heaven. Due to her photophobia she refused, and sent a messenger, Namtar, her servant. His behaviour had infuriated Anu and Ea, and their anger was turned against his mistress. They sent Nergal to punish her. He pulled the queen by her hair from the throne, in order to decapitate her, but her prayers for mercy stopped him, and Nergal made Ereshkigal his wife.

In some versions of the myths, she rules the underworld by herself, sometimes with a husband subordinate to her named Gugalana. It was said that she had been stolen away by Kur and taken to the underworld, where she was made queen unwillingly.

She is the mother of the goddess Nungal. Her son with Enlil was the god Namtar. With Gugalana her son was Ninazu.

Eos ~ Goddess of the Dawn

Origins: Greek
Language: Greek
Translation: Means dawn
Feast Days: Unknown
Goddess of: Dawn
Goddess Type: Unknown
Also Known As:  Unknown
Symbols/Offerings: Unknown


The dawn goddess Eos was almost always described with rosy fingers or rosy forearms as she opened the gates of heaven for the Sun to rise. In Homer, her saffron-coloured robe is embroidered or woven with flower; rosy-fingered and with golden arms, she is pictured on Attic vases as a beautiful woman, crowned with a tiara or diadem and with the large white-feathered wings of a bird.

Eos is the daughter of Hyperion and Theia and sister of Helios the sun and Selene the moon, "who shine upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless gods who live in the wide heaven." Hesiod told in Theogony. The generation of Titans preceded all the familiar deities of Olympus, who largely supplanted them.

According to Pseudo-Apollodorus, Eos consorted with the war god Ares and was thereupon cursed with unsatisfiable sexual desire by the jealous Aphrodite. This caused her to abduct a number of handsome young men, most notably Cephalus, Tithonus, Orion and Cleitus. The good-looking Cleitus was made immortal by her. She also asked for Tithonus to be made immortal, but forgot to ask for eternal youth, which resulted in him living forever as a helpless old man.

According to Hesiod by Tithonus Eos had two sons, Memnon and Emathion. Memnon fought among the Trojans in the Trojan War and was slain. Her image with the dead Memnon across her knees, like Thetis with the dead Achilles are icons that inspired the Christian Pietà.

The abduction of Cephalus had special appeal for an Athenian audience because Cephalus was a local boy, and so this myth element appeared frequently in Attic vase-paintings and was exported with them. In the literary myth. Eos kidnapped Cephalus when he was hunting and took him to Syria.

The second-century CE traveller Pausanias was informed that the abductor of Cephalus was Hemera, goddess of Day. Although Cephalus was already married to Procris, Eos bore him three sons, including Phaeton and Hesperus, but he then began pining for Procris, causing a disgruntled Eos to return him to her — and put a curse on them. In Hyginus' report, Cephalus accidentally killed Procris some time later after he mistook her for an animal while hunting; in Ovid's Metamorphoses vii, Procris, a jealous wife, was spying on him and heard him singing to the wind, but thought he was serenading his ex-lover Eos.

Durga ~ Great Mother Goddess

Origins: Hindu
Language: Sanskrit
Translation: means a fort, or a place which is difficult to overrun
Feast Days: October 14th
Goddess of: Victory of Good over Evil
Goddess Type: Mother Goddess
Also Known As: Kali, Bhagvati, Bhavani, Ambika, Lalita, Gauri, Kandalini, Java, Rajeswari, et al, Skondamata, Kusumanda, Shailaputri, Kaalratri, Brahmacharini, Maha Gauri, Katyayani, Chandraghanta and Siddhidatri.
Symbols/Offerings: Unknown


Goddess Durga is the mother of the universe and believed to be the power behind the work of creation, preservation, and destruction of the world. Since time immemorial she has been worshipped as the supreme power of the Supreme Being and has been mentioned in many scriptures - Yajur Veda, Vajasaneyi Samhita and Taittareya Brahman. Hindus believe that goddess Durga protects her devotees from the evils of the world and at the same time removes their miseries.

Durga incarnated as the united power of all divine beings, who offered her the required physical attributes and weapons to kill the demon "Mahishasur". 

Durga's Many Arms

Durga is depicted as having eight or ten hands. These represent eight quadrants or ten directions in Hinduism. This suggests that she protects the devotees from all directions.

Durga's Three Eyes

Like Shiva, Mother Durga is also referred to as "Triyambake" meaning the three eyed Goddess. The left eye represents desire (the moon), the right eye represents action (the sun), and the central eye knowledge (fire).

Durga's Vehicle - the Lion

The lion represents power, will and determination. Mother Durga riding the lion symbolises her mastery over all these qualities. This suggests to the devotee that one has to possess all these qualities to get over the demon of ego.

Durga's Many Weapons

  • The conch shell in Durga's hand symbolizes the 'Pranava' or the mystic word 'Om', which indicates her holding on to God in the form of sound.
  • The bow and arrows represent energy. By holding both the bow and arrows in one hand "Mother Durga" is indicating her control over both aspects of energy - potential and kinetic.
  • The thunderbolt signifies firmness. The devotee of Durga must be firm like thunderbolt in one's convictions. Like the thunderbolt that can break anything against which it strikes, without being affected itself, the devotee needs to attack a challenge without losing his confidence.
  • The lotus in Durga's hand is not in fully bloomed, It symbolizing certainty of success but not finality. The lotus in Sanskrit is called "pankaja" which means born of mud. Thus, lotus stands for the continuous evolution of the spiritual quality of devotees amidst the worldly mud of lust and greed.
  • The "Sudarshan-Chakra" or beautiful discus, which spins around the index finger of the Goddess, while not touching it, signifies that the entire world is subservient to the will of Durga and is at her command. She uses this unfailing weapon to destroy evil and produce an environment conducive to the growth of righteousness.
  • The sword that Durga holds in one of her hands symbolizes knowledge, which has the sharpness of a sword. Knowledge which is free from all doubts, is symbolized by the shine of the sword.
  • Durga's trident or "trishul" is a symbol of three qualities - Satwa (inactivity), Rajas (activity) and Tamas (non-activity) - and she is remover of all the three types of miseries - physical, mental and spiritual.
Devi Durga stands on a lion in a fearless pose of "Abhay Mudra", signifying assurance of freedom from fear. The universal mother seems to be saying to all her devotees: "Surrender all actions and duties onto me and I shall release thee from all fears".

Demeter ~ Goddess of Harvest & Grain

Origins: Greece
Language: Greek
Translation: Means "earth mother", derived from Greek δε (de) "earth" and μητηρ (meter) "mother".
Feast Days: Feb 28th, Month of August, September 17th, September 28th, & December 7th
Goddess of: Harvest & Grain
Goddess Type: Earth Goddess
Also Known As: Unknown
Symbols/Offerings: Unknown


Perhaps the best known of all the harvest mythologies is the story of Demeter and Persephone. Demeter was a goddess of grain and of the harvest in ancient Greece. Her daughter, Persephone, caught the eye of Hades, god of the underworld. When Hades abducted Persephone and took her back to the underworld, Demeter's grief caused the crops on earth to die and go dormant. By the time she finally recovered her daughter, Persephone had eaten six pomegranate seeds, and so was doomed to spend six months of the year in the underworld. These six months are the time when the earth dies, beginning at the time of the autumn equinox. Each year, Demeter mourns the loss of her daughter for six months. At Ostara, the greening of the earth begins once more and life begins anew.
In some interpretations of the story, Persephone is not held in the underworld against her will. Instead, she chooses to stay there for six months each year so that she can bring a little bit of brightness and light to the souls doomed to spend eternity with Hades.

Danu ~ Irish Mother Goddess

Origins: Irish
Language: Celt
Translation: unknown
Feast Days: unknown
Goddess of: Goddess of all Celtic
Goddess Type: Triple Goddess
Also Known As: Anu, Dana, Don, Dom
Symbols/Offerings: unknown


She is the matron and protector, goddess and warrior. She is neither old nor young, but she is all. She is the goddess Danu, the goddess of all Celtic deities.

There is very little known about the goddess Danu. The sources that we derive most of our information about her are old and unclear. However, there are consecutive myths spoken about her.
The goddess Danu was represented as the Mother of the Gods.

She was also the goddess of rivers and water. She was the matron and goddess of the Tribes of Danu, who were later to become the fairies and leprechauns of Ireland. It is believed that she gave them a great deal of her powers, hence the fairy magic that we hear of in myth. Danu can also be depicted as the Triple Goddess, because she is young and old, she encompasses all.

Cybele ~ Goddess of the Earth

Origins: Greek, Roman
Language: Greek
Translation: Meaning unknown
Feast Days: March 24th, April 4th, December 3rd
Goddess of: Earth
Goddess Type: Earth Goddess, Mother Goddess
Also Known As: Mother Earth, Isis


Cybele was at the center of a rather bloody Phrygian cult, and was sometimes known as Magna Mater, or "great goddess." As part of their worship, priests performed mysterious rites in her honor. Of particular note was the sacrifice of a bull performed as part of an initiation into Cybele's cult. This ritual was known as the taurobolium, and during the rite a candidate for initiation stood in a pit under a floor with a wooden grate. The bull was sacrificed above the grate, and the blood ran through holes in the wood, showering the initiate. This was a form of ritual purification and rebirth. For an idea of what this probably looked like, there's an amazing scene in the HBO series Rome in which the character Atia makes a sacrifice to Cybele to protect her son Octavian, who later becomes the emperor Augustus.

Cybele's lover was Attis, and her jealousy caused him to castrate and kill himself. His blood was the source of the first violets, and divine intervention allowed Attis to be resurrected by Cybele, with some help from Zeus. Thanks to this resurrection story, Cybele came to be associated with the endless cycle of life, death and rebirth. In some areas, there is still an annual three-day celebration of Attis' rebirth and Cybele's power around the time of the spring equinox, called the Hilaria.

Like Attis, it is said that Cybele's followers would work themselves into orgiastic frenzies and then ritually castrate themselves. After this, these priests donned women's clothing, and assumed female identities. They became known as the Gallai. In some regions, female priestesses led Cybele's dedicants in rituals involving ecstatic music, drumming and dancing. Under the leadership of Augustus Caesar, Cybele became extremely popular. Augustus erected a giant temple in her honor on the Palatine Hill, and the statue of Cybele that is in the temple bears the face of Augustus' wife, Livia.

As the Roman Empire spread, deities of other cultures found themselves absorbed into Roman religion. In the case of Cybele, she later took on many aspects of the Egyptian goddess Isis.

Cerridwen ~ Goddess of transformation, inspiration, prophecy

Origins: Welsh
Language: Welsh
Translation: Means "blessed poetry" from Welsh cerdd "poetry" and gwen "white, fair, blessed"
Feast Days: June 20th
Goddess of: transformation, cauldron of inspiration, & prophecy
Goddess Type: Triple Goddess, Crone Goddess
Also Known As: unknown
Symbols/Offerings: cauldron


Crone of Wisdom:

In Welsh legend, Cerridwen represents the crone, which is the darker aspect of the goddess. She has powers of prophecy, and is the keeper of the cauldron of knowledge and inspiration in the Underworld. As typical of Celtic goddesses, she has two children: daughter Crearwy is fair and light, but son Afagddu (also called Morfran) is dark, ugly and malevolent.

The Legend of Gwion:

In one part of the Mabinogion, which is the cycle of myths found in Welsh legend, Cerridwen brews up a potion in her magical cauldron to give to her son Afagddu (Morfran). She puts young Gwion in charge of guarding the cauldron, but three drops of the brew fall upon his finger, blessing him with the knowledge held within. Cerridwen pursues Gwion through a cycle of seasons until, in the form of a hen, she swallows Gwion, disguised as an ear of corn. Nine months later, she gives birth to Taliesen, the greatest of all the Welsh poets.

The Symbols of Cerridwen:

The legend of Cerridwen is heavy with instances of transformation: when she is chasing Gwion, the two of them change into any number of animal and plant shapes. Following the birth of Taliesen, Cerridwen contemplates killing the infant but changes her mind; instead she throws him into the sea, where he is rescued by a Celtic prince, Elffin. Because of these stories, change and rebirth and transformation are all under the control of this powerful Celtic goddess.

The Cauldron of Knowledge:

Cerridwen's magical cauldron held a potion that granted knowledge and inspiration -- however, it had to be brewed for a year and a day to reach its potency. Because of her wisdom, Cerridwen is often granted the status of Crone, which in turn equates her with the darker aspect of the Triple Goddess.
As a goddess of the Underworld, Cerridwen is often symbolized by a white sow, which represents both her fecundity and fertility and her strength as a mother. She is both the Mother and the Crone; many modern Pagans honor Cerridwen for her close association to the full moon.

Cerridwen and the Arthur Legend

The stories of Cerridwen found within the Mabinogion are actually the basis for the cycle of Arthurian legend. Her son Taliesin became a bard in the court of Elffin, the Celtic prince who rescued him from the sea. Later on, when Elffin is captured by the Welsh king Maelgwn, Taliesen challenges Maelgwn's bards to a contest of words. It is Taliesen's eloquence that ultimately frees Elffin from his chains. Through a mysterious power, he renders Maelgwn's bards incapable of speech, and frees Elphin from his chains. Taliesen becomes associated with Merlin the magician in the Arthurian cycle.

In the Celtic legend of Bran the Blessed, the cauldron appears as a vessel of wisdom and rebirth. Bran, mighty warrior-god, obtains a magical cauldron from Cerridwen (in disguise as a giantess) who had been expelled from a lake in Ireland, which represents the Otherworld of Celtic lore. The cauldron can resurrect the corpse of dead warriors placed inside it (this scene is believed to be depicted on the Gundestrup Cauldron). Bran gives his sister Branwen and her new husband Math -- the King of Ireland -- the cauldron as a wedding gift, but when war breaks out Bran sets out to take the valuable gift back. He is accompanied by a band of a loyal knights with him, but only seven return home.

Bran himself is wounded in the foot by a poisoned spear, another theme that recurs in the Arthur legend -- found in the guardian of the Holy Grail, the Fisher King. In fact, in some Welsh stories, Bran marries Anna, the daughter of Joseph of Arimathea. Also like Arthur, only seven of Bran's men return home. Bran travels after his death to the otherworld, and Arthur makes his way to Avalon. There are theories among some scholars that Cerridwen's cauldron -- the cauldron of knowledge and rebirth -- in in fact the Holy Grail for which Arthur spent his life searching.

Brighid ~ Goddess of Poetry, Healing, Crafts

Origins: Irish
Language: Irish
Translation: exalted one
Feast Days: February 1st (Imbolc)
Goddess of: fire, poetry, healing, crafts, and wisdom
Goddess Type: Triple Goddess
Also Known As: Brighit, St. Brigid,
Symbols/Offerings: Crafts, Brighid's Cross


Origins of Brighid:

In Irish mythological cycles, Brighid is the daughter of the Dagda, and therefore one of the Tuatha de Dannan. Her two sisters were also called Brighid, and were associated with healing and crafts. The three Brighids were typically treated as three aspects of a single deity, making her a classic Celtic triple goddess.

Patron and Protector:

Brighid was the patron of poets and bards, as well as healers and magicians. She was especially honored when it came to matters of prophecy and divination. She was honored with a sacred flame maintained by a group of priestesses, and her sanctuary at Kildare, Ireland, later became the home of the Christian variant of Brighid, St. Brigid of Kildare. Kildare is also the location of one of several sacred wells in the Celtic regions, many of which are connected to Brighid. Even today, it's not uncommon to see ribbons and other offerings tied to trees near a well as a petition to this healing goddess.

Celebrating Brighid:

There are a variety of ways to celebrate the many aspects of Brighid at Imbolc. If you're part of a group practice or a coven, why not try Honoring Brighid With a Group Ceremony? You can also incorporate prayers to Brighid into your rites and rituals for the season. Having trouble figuring out what direction you're headed? Ask Brighid for assistance and guidance with a Brighid's Crossroads Divination Ritual.

Brighid's Many Forms:

In Britain, Brighid's counterpart was Brigantia, a warlike figure of the Brigantes tribe near Yorkshire, England. She is similar to the Greek goddess Athena and the Roman Minerva. Later, as Christianity moved into the Celtic lands, St. Brigid was the daughter of a Pictish slave who was baptised by St. Patrick, and founded a community of nuns at Kildare.
In addition to her position as a goddess of magic, Brighid was known to watch over women in childbirth, and thus evolved into a goddess of hearth and home. Today, many Pagans and Wiccans honor her on February 2, which has become known as Imbolc or Candlemas.

Crafts to Honor Brighid:

In many Pagan traditions today, Brighid is celebrated with crafts that honor her role as the protector of the hearth. You can make a Brighid corn doll, as well as a Bride's Bed for her to sleep in. Perhaps the best known decoration is the Brighid's Cross, whose arms represent the place where a crossroads comes together, the space between light and dark.

Brighid and Imbolc:

Like many Pagan holidays, Imbolc has a Celtic connection, although it wasn’t celebrated in non-Gaelic Celtic societies. The early Celts celebrated a purification festival by honoring Brighid. In some parts of the Scottish Highlands, Brighid was viewed as a sister of Cailleach Bheur, a woman with mystical powers who was older than the land itself. In modern Wicca and Paganism, Brighid is sometimes viewed as the maiden aspect of the maiden/mother/crone cycle, although it might be more accurate for her to be the mother, given her connection with home and childbirth

Baubo ~ Goddess of Mirth, Jests, & Humor

Origin: Greek
Language: Greek
Translation: Unknown
Feast Days: January 8th
Goddess of: Mirth, Jests, & Bawdy humor
Goddess Type: undetermined
Also Known As: Iambe, Atargatis, a goddess originating in northern Syria, and Kybele (or Cybele), a goddess from Asia Minor


She is Baubo, a fun-loving, bawdy, jesting, sexually liberated—yet very wise—goddess who plays a crucial, healing role in the Eleusian mysteries of ancient Greece.

She remains a much-honored figure today among many women—celebrated as a positive force of female sexuality and the healing power of laughter. Her power and energy have survived in the spirits of women down through the centuries.

Because of the scarcity of written references—and the contradictory nature of the writings that we do have—she is a mysterious figure in many ways.

Much of the mystery surrounding the goddess Baubo arises from literary connections between her name and the names of other goddesses. Baubo is sometimes referred to as the goddess Iambe, the daughter of Pan and Echo described in the legends of Homer.

Scholars have traced the origin of Baubo to very ancient times in the Mediterranean region, particularly western Syria. Goddess of vegetation, her later appearance as a servant in the myths of Demeter mark the transition to an agrarian culture where the power has now shifted to Demeter, the Greek goddess of grain and the harvest.

This brings us to the wonderful story in which Baubo and Demeter meet up, as told in the Eleusian mysteries. Baubo is best known from this story, where she appears as a middle-aged servant to King Celeus of Eleusis.

According to the myths, Demeter was wandering the Earth in deep mourning over the loss of her beloved daughter, Persephone, who had been violently abducted by Hades, the god of the underworld. Abandoning her goddess duties of bringing fertility to the land, she took refuge in the city of Eleusis. The disheartened goddess, disguised as an old woman, was welcomed into the home of the king.

Everyone in the king's household tried to console and lift the spirits of the severely depressed woman, but to no avail—until Baubo showed up. The two women started chatting, with Baubo making a number of humorous, risqué remarks. Demeter began to smile. Then, Baubo suddenly lifted her skirt in front of Demeter.

Different versions of this tale provide very different images of what Demeter saw under Baubo's skirt, but whatever she saw, it finally lifted her out of her depression. She responded with a long and hearty belly laugh!

Ultimately, with her spirits and confidence restored, Demeter persuaded Zeus to command Hades to release Persephone. So, thanks to the lewd antics of Baubo, all was once again right in the world.
This inspiring story from the Eleusian mysteries suggests the meaning of Baubo's name. Her name, according to many interpretations, means "belly," indicating the belly laughter that she provoked in Demeter. According to other interpretations, however, Baubo's name means "old crone." Although "crone" has rather negative connotations to us today, the word was originally used to refer to a wise, mature woman. The "belly" interpretation of Baubo's name is revealed in some ancient figurines of the goddess that have been found in Asia Minor and elsewhere. These sacred objects depict Baubo's face in her belly, with her vulva forming her chin. Other unearthed figurines of Baubo depict her playfully exposing an exaggerated vulva between her legs.
Baubo appeared as Demeter's "sacred fool" in ancient Greece's annual festival of women. At this festival, initiates were taught the profound lessons of living joyfully, dying without fear, and being an integral part of the great cycles of nature—lessons that are at the heart of the Eleusian mysteries.

As the initiates carried sacrificial piglets across a bridge, a gallus (castrated priest) portraying Baubo encouraged them to join him in making lewd comments and gestures (including lifting his skirt) to the assembled crowd. The precise meaning of this lesson to the initiates has been lost in the mists of time, though it undoubtedly had great significance at this festival celebrating the power and sacredness of women. Unfortunately, its meaning is all too easy to misinterpret as simple vulgarity in our modern puritanical, patriarchal society.
Some of what we know about Baubo comes from the pen of Clement of Alexandria. Clement was a Greek Christian writer of anti-pagan rants in the second century of the Common Era. However, his diatribes often contained revealing information about pagan beliefs—mainly in his misinterpretations of the pagan Orphic mysteries of ancient Greece.

The Orphic mysteries reveal that Baubo was married to a swine-herder. That doesn't sound like much today, but it was probably considered quite a lucrative occupation in ancient times. Baubo also had a son named Eumolpos, who is described as a "sweet singer." The high order of priests officiating at the festival of the Eleusian mysteries claimed descent from Eumolpos. High priestesses participating in this festival did as well.

From the ambiguous nature of the surviving information about Baubo, some scholars have concluded that this goddess was perhaps a hermaphrodite—or transgendered in some other way. According to some interpretations of Clement's writings, Baubo, when she lifted her skirt to Demeter, revealed body parts "inappropriate to a woman."

The possibility that Baubo may have had male or male-like genitalia has been suggested as the main reason that Demeter suddenly became happy upon seeing this sight. In ancient times, hermaphroditism had profound religious significance. It represented the unification of seemingly opposite and irreconcilable things—whether those things were male and female or life and death. For Demeter, a woman who was worried that her daughter might be dead, this realization would have been extremely comforting.

The story of Baubo and Demeter can still serve as a great comfort for us. Some women who belong to pagan groups today, for example, join together to appeal to Baubo for the gift of laughter, fun, friendship, and spiritual healing. In addition, certain Wiccan rituals celebrating the diversity of the gay/lesbian/bisexual/transgender community invoke the name and spirit of Baubo.
Of course, you don't have to be a follower of pagan beliefs to discover the joyful mirth of Baubo.
The goddess Baubo is always there to remind us to let our hair down and have fun. She tells us to be proud of, to occasionally flaunt, and to be empowered by our femininity and sexuality. And Baubo reminds us to be sure to let out a good belly laugh every now and then! After all, laughter is one of our greatest gifts from the Goddess!

Bast ~ Goddess of Fetility, Pregnancy, & Sun

Origin: Egypt
Language: Egyptian
Translation: Possibly means "fire, heat" in Egyptian
Feast Days: Unknown
Goddess of: fertility, pregnancy, sun
Goddess Type: Undetermined
Also Known As: Bastet
Symbols/Offerings: Cats, gold jewelry,


In ancient Egypt, cats were often worshipped as deities -- and anyone who lives with a cat knows they haven't forgotten that, either! In particular, Bast was one of the most highly honored feline gods. Also called Bastet, she was a goddess of sex and fertility.

According to the Encyclopedia of World Myth, Bast was originally portrayed as a lioness, but by the time of the Middle Kingdom, around 900 b.c.e., she had morphed into more of a domestic cat.

Sometimes, she was portrayed with kittens beside her, as an homage to her role as a goddess of fertility.

The cult of Bast originally sprouted up around the town of Bubastis, which takes its name from her. In her role as protector -- not only of households, but of all of Lower Egypt -- she guarded rural folk and nobility alike. She was often associated with the sun god, Ra, and in later times became a bit of a solar deity herself. When Greek culture moved into Egypt, Bast was portrayed as a moon goddess instead.

When Bast's temple at Per-Bast was excavated, the mummified remains of over a quarter of a million cats were discovered, acccording to the Encylopedia Mythica.. ring the heyday of ancient Egypt, cats were bedecked in gold jewelry and permitted to eat from their owners' plates. When a cat died, it was honored with an elaborate ceremony, mummification, and interment at Per-Bast.

Bast was also seen as a goddess who protected mothers and their newborn children. In Egyptian magical texts, a woman suffering from infertility might make an offering to Bast in hopes that this would help her conceive. In later years, Bast became strongly connected with Mut, a mother goddess figure, and with the Greek Artemis.

Athena ~ Goddess of Wisdom, Defensice and Strategic Wars

Origin: Greek
Language: Greek
Translation: Meaning unknown.
Feast Days: March 19th, May 20th, Month of June, September 21st
Goddess of: wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill.
Goddess Type: Crone Goddess
Also Known As: Minerva,
Symbols/Offerings: Owls (Glaucus), Olive trees, Snakes, Aegis, Armor, Helmets, Spears, Gorgoneion,


Athena as the goddess of philosophy became an aspect of the cult in Classical Greece during the late 5th century BC. She is the patroness of various crafts, especially of weaving, as Athena Ergane.

The metalwork of weapons also fell under her patronage. She led battles (Athena Promachos or the warrior maiden Athena Parthenos) as the disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother Ares, the patron of violence, bloodlust and slaughter—"the raw force of war". Athena's wisdom includes the cunning intelligence (metis) of such figures as Odysseus. Not only was this version of Athena the opposite of Ares in combat, it was also the polar opposite of the serene earth goddess version of the deity, Athena Polias.

Athena appears in Greek mythology as the patron and helper of many heroes, including Odysseus, Jason, and Heracles. In Classical Greek myths, she never consorts with a lover, nor does she ever marry, earning the title Athena Parthenos. A remnant of archaic myth depicts her as the adoptive mother of Erechtheus/Erichthonius through the foiled rape by Hephaestus. Other variants relate that Erichthonius, the serpent that accompanied Athena, was born to Gaia: when the rape failed, the semen landed on Gaia and impregnated her. After Erechthonius was born, Gaia gave him to Athena.

Though Athena is a goddess of war strategy, she disliked fighting without purpose and preferred to use wisdom to settle predicaments.[15] The goddess only encouraged fighting for a reasonable cause or to resolve conflict. As patron of Athens she fought in the Trojan war on the side of the Achaeans.

Athena competed with Poseidon to be the patron deity of Athens, which was yet unnamed, in a version of one founding myth. They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and that the Athenians would choose the gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring sprang up; this gave them a means of trade and water—Athens at its height was a significant sea power, defeating the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis—but the water was salty and not very good for drinking.

Athena, however, offered them the first domesticated olive tree. The Athenians (or their king, Cecrops) accepted the olive tree and with it the patronage of Athena, for the olive tree brought wood, oil, and food. Robert Graves was of the opinion that "Poseidon's attempts to take possession of certain cities are political myths" which reflect the conflict between matriarchal and patriarchal religions

Astarte ~ Goddess of Fertility, Sexuality, & War

Origin: Greek
Language: Greek
Translation: Meaning unknown
Feast Days: Months of April & November
Goddess of: Fertility, sexuality, & war
Goddess Type: Undetermined
Also Known As: Astarat, Astoreth, Ashtoret, Ishtar, Aphrodite
Symbols/Offerings: Bull, dove, honey, beer, wine, incense, egg, pomegranite, rose


Astarte was worshipped by the Syrians, Canaanites (Palestinians), Phoenicians, Egyptians, and other Semitic Tribes. King Solomon built a temple to her as Astoreth, near Jerusalem.

She was worshipped as many things, to the Egyptians, She was honored as a Goddess of War and tenacity, to the Semites, She was a Goddess of Love and Fertility. To the Greeks she was transposed into the Goddess Aphrodite. The bible refers to her as "the abomination". Yet, considering Her widespread devotion in Biblical times, the attempts to discredit the Goddess are typical.

She is sometimes dipicted wearing the head of a bull or with horns.

Please refer to Aphrodite to learn more...

Artemis/Diana ~ Goddess of the hunt & chilbirth

Origins: Hellinistic, Greek
Language: Greek
Translation: Meaning unknown, possibly related either to Greek αρτεμης (artemes) "safe" or αρταμος (artamos) "a butcher".
Feast Days: Month of April, May 24th, & December 29th (Artemis) and April 11th, May 27th, & August 17th (Diana)
Goddess of: hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and protector of young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women
Goddess Type: Mother Goddess & Earth Goddess
Also Known As: Diana, Eileithyia
Symbols/Offerings: deer, cypress, Bow, arrows, stags, hunting dog, moon


Artemis was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Her Roman equivalent is Diana. Some scholars believe that the name and indeed the goddess herself was originally pre-Greek. Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera, Potnia Theron: "Artemis of the wildland, Mistress of Animals". The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter.

In the classical period of Greek mythology, Artemis was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. She often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. In later Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth.

As a virgin, Artemis had interested many gods and men, but only her hunting companion, Orion, won her heart. Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by Gaia.
Alpheus, a river god, was in love with Artemis, but he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart. So he decides to capture her.

Artemis, who is with her companions at Letrenoi, goes to Alpheus, but, suspicious of his motives, she covers her face with mud so that the river god does not recognize her. In another story, Alphaeus tries to rape Artemis' attendant Arethusa. Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis' temple, Artemis Alphaea in Letrini, where the goddess and her attendant drink.

Bouphagos, the son of the Titan Iapetos, sees Artemis and thinks about raping her. Reading his sinful thoughts, Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe.

Sipriotes is a boy, who, either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her, is turned into a girl by the goddess.

Moral of the story...leave her be...

Aphrodite/Venus ~ Goddess of Love

Origin: Greek, Roman
Language: Greek
Translation: Meaning unknown, possibly of Phoenician origin
Feast Days: February 6th & the month of April
Goddess of: love, sex, beauty, lust
Goddess Type: Undetermined
Also Known As: Inanna, Ishtar, Astarte, Turan, Venus (Roman)
Symbols/Offerings: the sea, seashells, dolphins, swans, apples, pomegranites, and roses.


According to legend, she was born fully formed from the white sea form that arose when the god Uranus was castrated. She came ashore on the island of Cyprus, and later was married off by Zeus to Hephaistos, the deformed craftsman of Olympus.

Despite being married to Hephaistos, Aphrodite took her job as a goddess of sexuality seriously, and had a multitude of lovers, but one of her favorites was the warrior god Ares. At one point, Helios, the sun god, caught Ares and Aphrodite romping around, and told Hephaistos what he had seen. Hephaistos caught the two of them in a net, and invited all the other gods and goddesses to laugh at their shame... but they had none whatsoever. In fact, Aphrodite and Ares had a good laugh about the whole thing, and didn't particularly care what anyone thought. In the end, Ares ended up paying Hephaistos a fine for his inconvenience, and the whole matter was dropped.

At one point, Aphrodite had a fling with Adonis, the young hunter god. He was killed by a wild boar one day, and some tales indicate that the boar might have been a jealous Ares in disguise.

Aphrodite had several sons, including Priapus, Eros, and Hermaphroditus.

In many myths and legends, Aphrodite is portrayed as self-absorbed and cranky. It would seem that like many of the other Greek gods, she spent a lot of time meddling in the affairs of mortals, mostly for her own amusement. She was instrumental in the cause of the Trojan War; Aphrodite offered Helen of Sparta to Paris, the prince of Troy, and then when he saw Helen for the first time, Aphrodite made sure he was inflamed with lust, thus leading to Helen's abduction and a decade of war.

A festival was held regularly to honor Aphrodite, appropriately called the Aphrodisiac. At her temple in Corinth, revelers often paid tribute to Aphrodite by having rambunctious sex with her priestesses. The temple was later destroyed by the Romans, and not rebuilt, but fertility rites appear to have continued in the area.

Annapurna ~ Goddess of Food & Cooking

Origin(s): Hindu Goddess
Language: Sanskrit
Translation: Anna means 'food' or 'grains', Purna means 'filled completely'
Feast Day(s): Unknown
Goddess of: Food & Cooking
Goddess Type: Mother Goddess
Also Known As: Parvati, Rajarajeshvari, Lalitha Tripura Sundari
Symbols/Offerings: Corn, Grain


It is believed that she is empowered with the ability to supply food to an unlimited amount of people. Annapurna is an incarnation of the other Hindu goddess Parvati, the wife of Shiva. She symbolizes the divine aspect of nourishing care.
Images of this goddess can be found not only in the home kitchen or dining area, but also in restaurants, where food is prepared and served only after receiving Annapurna's blessing. By first getting her blessing, people believe that they will never be without food. Annapurna blessed converts the food into Amruta, a Sanskrit word for delicious, healthy food that grants immortality.

The story of the worship of Annapurna begins in the distant past, when the world's food disappeared. People were in danger of starving to death. The people petitioned Lord Brahma for assistance. Brahma consulted with Lord Vishnu and they decided to awaken Lord Shiva from his ritual sleep and give him the responsibility of restoring prosperity to the land. Shiva invited the goddess Annapurna to earth. He then begged her for rice, which was then distributed throughout the land. Shiva and Annapurna made an agreement. If she would look after the people of the sacred city Kasi and ensure they did not go hungry, Shiva would then grant them moksha (freedom from the cycle of birth and death).

Annapurna promises food to those who come to her. Statues or idols of this goddess are always depicted with a small bowl of food, ensuring a lifetime of food to her worshipers. She is also known as "Mother of the Three Worlds".

Amaterasu ~ Sun Goddess

Origin: Japanese, Shinto
Language: Japanese 
Translation: Amateru meaning "shining in heaven." The meaning of her whole name, Amaterasu-ōmikami, is "the great august kami (Gama or God) who shines in the heaven".
Feast Days: July 17th & December 8th
Goddess of: Sun and Universe
Goddess Type: Queen of Heaven
Also Known As: Amaterasu-ōmikami (天照大神/天照大御神) or Ōhirume-no-muchi-no-kami (大日孁貴神)
Symbols/Offerings: Unknown


Amaterasu (天照) is a part of the Japanese myth cycle and also a major deity of the Shinto religion. The Emperor of Japan believes himself to be a direct descendant of Amaterasu.

The oldest tales of Amaterasu come from the ca. 680 AD Kojiki and ca. 720 AD Nihon Shoki, the oldest records of Japanese history. In Japanese mythology Amaterasu is the sister of Susanoo, the god of storms and the sea, and of Tsukuyomi, the god of the moon. All three were born from Izanagi, when he was purifying himself after entering Yomi, the underworld, after failing to save Izanami.

Amaterasu was born when Izanagi washed out his left eye, Tsukuyomi was born from the washing of the right eye, and Susanoo from the washing of the nose.

She became the ruler of the sun and the heavens along with her brother, Tsukuyomi, the god of the moon and ruler of the night. Originally, Amaterasu shared the sky with Tsukuyomi, her husband and brother until, out of disgust, he killed the goddess of food, Uke Mochi, when she pulled "food from her rectum, nose, and mouth". This killing upset Amaterasu causing her to label Tsukuyomi an evil god and split away from him; separating night from day.

The texts also tell of a long-standing rivalry between Amaterasu and her other brother, Susanoo. When he was to leave Heaven by orders of Izanagi, he went to bid his sister goodbye. Amaterasu was suspicious, but when Susanoo proposed a challenge to prove his sincerity, she accepted. Each of them took an object of the other's and from it birthed gods and goddesses. Amaterasu birthed three women from Susanoo's sword while he birthed five men from her necklace. Claiming the gods were hers because they were born of her necklace, and the goddesses were his, she decided that she had won the challenge, as his item produced women. The two were content for a time, but her brother became restless and went on a rampage, destroying Amaterasu's rice fields, hurling a flayed pony at her loom, and killing one of her attendants in a fit of rage. Amaterasu, who was in fury and grief, hid inside the Ama-no-Iwato ("heavenly rock cave"), thus effectively hiding the sun for a long period of time.

Though she was persuaded to leave the cave, Susanoo was punished by being banished from Heaven. Both later amended their conflict when Susanoo gave her the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi sword as a reconciliation gift.

According to legend, Amaterasu bequeathed to her descendant Ninigi the Yata no Kagami mirror, Yasakani no Magatama jewel or orb, and the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi sword. This sacred mirror, jewel, and sword collectively became the three Imperial Regalia of Japan.

Worshipping the Sun Goddess

The Ise Shrine located in Honshū, Japan houses the inner shrine, Naiku dedicated to Amaterasu. Her sacred mirror, Yata no Kagami is said to be kept at this shrine as one of the Imperial Regalia of Japan. At this shrine, a ceremony known as Shikinen Sengu is held every 20 years to honor Amaterasu. The main shrine buildings are destroyed and rebuilt at a location adjacent to the site. New clothing and food is then offered to the goddess. This practice is a part of the Shinto faith and has been practiced since the 690s.

The worship of Amaterasu to the exclusion of other kami has been described as "the cult of the sun". This phrase can also refer to the early pre-archipelagoan worship of the sun itself.

List of Wiccan Deities

Wiccan/Pagan Gods & Goddess

Feel free to let me know if I miss any of them and I will add them :) Click the names to read more about them.


Amaterasu - Japanese sun Goddess
Annapurna - Hindu Goddess of Food and Nourishment
Aphrodite /Venus- Greek Goddess of love and beauty
Artemis/Diana - Greek/Roman Goddess of the hunt, virginity, and childbirth, twin sister of Apollo, and an Olympian, often associated with the moon
Astarte - Greek Goddess of fertility, sexuality, and war
Athena - Greek Goddess of wisdom, defensive and strategic wars
Bast - Egyptian solar and war Goddess (in the form of a cat)
Baubo - Greek Goddess of mirth, jests, and bawdy humour
Brighid - Celtic Goddess of poetry, healing, and crafts (especially smith-work), holy wells and eternal flames
Cerridwen - Celtic Goddess of transformation, of the cauldron of inspiration, of prophecy
Cybele - Greek Earth Mother
Danu - Irish Mother Goddess
Demeter - Greek Goddess of the harvest and of grain, mother of Persephone
Durga - Hindu Great Goddess, Divine Mother
Eos - Greek Goddess of the dawn
Ereshkigal - Mesopotamian Goddess of Darkness, Death, and Gloom
Flora - Roman Goddess of flowers
Fortuna -Roman Goddess of fortune
Freya or Freyja - Norse Goddess of fertility, sexual liberty, abundance, and war
Frigg - Norse Goddess of marriage, household management, and love, Queen of Heaven, and wife of Odin
Gaia/Earth Mother - The Greek Goddess Gaia is the primordial Goddess of earth, mother and grandmother of the first generation of Titans
Hathor - Egyptian Goddess of the Milky Way, Mother Goddess, Goddess of childbirth and death.
Hecate - Greek Goddess of witchcraft and magick, crossroads, and the harvest moon
Hestia - Greek Goddess of the hearth and domestic life
Hel - Norse Goddess daughter of Loki and the giantess Angrboda, Queen of the Dead
Hera - Roman Goddess of the Hearth, of women, and of marriage
Inanna - Sumerian Goddess of sexual love, fertility, and warfare
Isis - Egyptian Mother Goddess, matron of nature and magick, Goddess of creativity and the underdog
Ishtar - Mesopotamian Goddess of sexual love, fertility, and war
Juno - Roman Queen of the Gods and Goddess of matrimony
Kali - Hindu Goddess of Time and Death, also Divine Mother Goddess
Kore - Greek Maiden Goddess of bountiful Earth
Kuan Yin , Kwan Yin Ma , Quan Yin - Chinese Goddess of Mercy and Compassion
Lakshmi - Hindu Goddess of Wealth and Fertility (Goddess as Mother/Sustainer)
Lalita - Hindu Goddess of Beauty
Luna Goddess - Roman Goddess of the Moon
Ma'at - Egyptian Goddess, personified concept of truth, balance, justice, and order
Mary - Mother Goddess, Queen of Heaven, Goddess of Femininity
Maya - Hindu The Goddess of Illusion and Mystery
Minerva - Roman Goddess of wisdom and war
Morrigan - Celtic war Goddess
Nut - Egyptian Goddess of heaven and the sky and all celestial bodies
Parvati - Hindu Divine Mother, the embodiment of the total energy in the universe, Goddess of Power and Might
Pele - Hawai'ian volcano Goddess, Destroyer and Creatrix
Persephone - Greek Goddess daughter of Demeter, queen of the dead, also a grain-Goddess
Radha - Hindu Divine Mother
Rhiannon - Celtic Goddess of the moon
Rosmurta - Celtic/Roman Goddess of abundance. She is also the Goddess of Business Success.
Saraswati - Hindu Goddess of Knowledge, the Arts, Mathematics, Education, and cosmic Wisdom (Creatrix)
Sedna: Inuit Goddess of the Sea and Queen of the Underworld
Selene - Greek Goddess of Moon
Shakti- Hindu primordial cosmic energy, Great Divine Mother
Shekina - Hebrew, feminine aspect of God, Shekhina represented compassion in its purest form
Sita - Hindu Goddess representing perfect womanhood
Sol - Norse Sun Goddess
Sophia - Greek Goddess of wisdom
Spider Woman - Teotihuacan Great Goddess (Creatrix)
Tara - Hindu, Mother Goddess, the absolute, unquenchable hunger that propels all life.
Tara, Green - Buddhist female Buddha, Tibetan Buddhism - compassion, liberation, success. Compassionate Buddha of enlightened activity
Tara, White - Buddhist Goddess known for compassion, long life, healing and serenity; also known as The Wish-fulfilling Wheel, or Cintachakra
Tara, Red - fierceness, magnetizing all good things
Tara, Black - power
Tara, Yellow - wealth and prosperity
Tara, Blue - transmutation of anger
Tiamat - Mesopotamian dragon Goddess, embodiment of primordial chaos (the Velvet Dark)
Uma - Hindu Goddess of power, the personification of light and beauty, embodying great beauty and divine wisdom
Vesta - Roman Goddess of the hearth
Voluptas - Roman Goddess of pleasure
Yemaya - Yoruban Mother Goddess, Goddess of the Ocean
White Buffalo Calf Woman - Lakota Goddess

Goddess Titles

~ Crone Goddess - Title used for Wiccan Goddesses of death, rebirth, and wisdom, such as Cerridwen, andHecate.
~ Earth Goddess - Title used for embodiments of the Earth, such as Greek Goddess Gaia, Demeter, Cybele.
~ Great Mother Goddess - Creatrix existing in most religions, under various names such as Demeter, Gaia, Isis, Parvati (also Great Goddess, Great Mother, Divine Mother).
~ Moon Goddess - Title used for Goddesses of the Moon, such as Luna, Selene, and Artemis.
~ Mother Goddess - Title used for the bountiful embodiment of the Earth (see Earth Goddess).
~ Maiden Goddess - Title used for Goddesses who personify the youthful energy of spring, such as Kore, Diana (also Virgin Goddess)
~ Queen of Heaven - title used for Virgin Mary, Asherah, and possibly other Great Mother Goddesses
~ Queen of the Underworld - title used for Ereshkigal, Persephone, and possibly other Death Goddesses
~ Triple Goddess : worshipped since the 7th millennium BC as the Goddess in three aspects—as a young woman, a birth-giving matron, and an old woman (Maiden-Mother-Crone). Passed down through the ages into virtually all religions:
  • Parvati-Durga-Uma (Kali) in India
  • Ana-Babd-Macha (the Morrigan), and Brighid in Ireland
  • Hebe-Hera-Hecate, the three Moerae, the three Gorgons, the three Graeae, and the three Horae in Greece
  • the Fates or Fortunae in Romans
  • the Norns to the Vikings
  • Diana Triformis to the druids

~ Virgin Goddess - Title used for Goddesses who are solitary, choosing to stand alone, without consorts.


Adonis - Greek God of rebirth and vegetation, worshipped in mystery religions for untold eons.
Apollo - Greek/Roman young solar God, God of light, truth and prophecy, God of archery, medicine and healing, God of music, poetry, and the arts
Anubis - Egyptian God of the Dead
Aten - Egyptian Supreme God, solar deity
Brahma - Hindu Creator God
Coyote - First Nations Trickster God
Cernunnos - Celtic God of the Wild Hunt, fertility and masculine energy.
Dagda - Irish Father God, somewhat comical and bawdy
Dionysus - Greek/Roman God of wine, of ritual ecstasy, God of agriculture, music, and theatre, communication between living and dead
Eros - Greek God of sexuality and fertility
Ganesh - Hindu God with elephant head, remover of obstacles, God of beginnings, patron of arts and sciences, of intelligence and wisdom
Gopala - Hindu Child God, young Krishna, playful and mischevious while always aware of divinity
Govinda - Sikh God, preserver, protective father
Great Spirit - First Nations supreme Deity, Creator, Source
Hades - Greek God of the Underworld and Death
Hephaestus - Greek God of the Forge, of technology, craftsmen, sculptors, fire and volcanoes.
Hermes - Greek God of boundaries and travelers, shepherds and cowherds, orators, writers and poets, invention, commerce, and thieves. Messenger of the Gods. Trickster God.
Herne - British God of vegetation, vine, and the wild hunt
Holly King - English God of winter (rest, withdrawal)
Horus - Egyptian Sky God, God of sun and moon, God of war and the hunt
Krishna - Hindu Supreme God, essence of all creation
Loki - Norse God, shape-shifter and gender-changer
Lugh - Celtic God of smiths and artisans, harvest god
Mercury - Roman God of commerce, messenger of the Gods, speed and travel.
Mithras - Persian God of light
Oak King - English God of summer (expansion, growth, activity)
Odin - Norse Father God , God of wisdom, wealth, inspiration, poetry, battle, hunting, magick, prophecy
Osiris - Egyptian God of the Underworld and the harvest
Pan - Greek nature God, Horned God, god of shepherds and flocks, of wild forests and fields, virility, fertility and spring
Ra - Egyptian God, solar deity
Rama - Hindu God representing the perfect human man and husband
Set/Seth - Egyptian God of chaos
Shiva - Hindu God, the destroyer of obstacles, transformer
Sunna - Norse Sun God
Tammuz - Egyptian green God
Thoth - Egyptian God of magick and wisdom
Vishnu - Hindu God, sustainer
Zeus - Father God, Sky God

God Titles

~ Child God- Title used for Gods in the form of infants, such as Gopala, Baby Jesus, Horus (also Son God).
~ Father God - Title used for Pagan patriarchs, such as Zeus, Dagda, Odin.
~ Green Man - Title used for the Earth Gods, such as Tammuz, Herne, Dionysus (also Green God).
~ Horned God - Title used for Wiccan Gods of the animals or the hunt, symbolizing virility and strength, such as Pan, Cernunnos, Herne, Pashupati.
~ Lover God - Title used for Gods who aspect as consorts of the Goddess and lover to his devotees, such as Krishna, Cernunnos, Pan.
~ Sacrificial Gods - Title used for deities whose ritual sacrifice provides life for the people, such as Osiris, Jesus, Adonis, and other Sun Gods and Green Gods
~ Sun God - Title used for Solar Gods, such as Christ, Sunna, Apollo, Ra.
~ Triple God - Title used for the godhead as a trinity, such as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva; God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.